Technical and engineering terms, abbreviations and jargon retain their normally accepted meanings when used in an Amateur Radio context. However, some may also have the additional alternative meanings that are defined below. Some standard terms and abbreviations, which do not have additional meanings, are included in the list for the benefit of readers who are not familiar with their usage but have heard them on the amateur bands.
aa all after (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) or End of Line (CW use only. Sent as a single group, with no space between letters) or artificial aerial ab all before (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) abt about (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ack automatic acknowledgment of uncorrupted digital data receipt across the pond on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean activate operate a station from a specific location, such as a rare country that normally has no resident Radio Amateurs adee addressee (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) adr address (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ads address (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) af audio frequency after burner high powered amplifier "again" shortened version of "say again" which is often used to indicate that a repeat is required agn again (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) alias a short word or group of characters used to identify a digipeater, as an alternative to the full callsign alpha time local time, e.g. BST, EST, PST etc. am amplitude modulation AMSAT Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation AMTOR "Amateur Teleprinting Over Radio", an error correcting data transmission system based on the marine SITOR system amu antenna matching unit ancient mod facetious meaning of "AM" (Amplitude Modulation) ani any (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ans answer (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ant antenna (aerial) (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ar end of message (CW use only. Sent as a single group, with no space between letters) armchair copy description of good quality strong signal with no interference ARRL American Radio Relay League artificial aerial old name for a dummy load, particularly with respect to a type of amateur radio licence issued in the UK, prior to World War II, which allowed the licensee to build and operate a wireless (radio) transmitter, but not to radiate a signal outside the confines of the registered address ARQ Automatic Repeat Request as wait (CW use only. Sent as a single group, with no space between letters) at previously used for the @ sign in e-mail addresses. Now superseded by "AC".(CW use only. Sent as a single group, with no spaces between letters) atv amateur television (fast scan) atu antenna tuning unit aurora The Aurora Borealis or Aurora Australis (Northern and Southern Lights respectively). VHF signals may be "bounced off" these ionised gas layers in the upper atmosphere AX25 transmission protocol used for amateur packet radio operation b4 before (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) back over (CB jargon not normally used by Radio Amateurs) Baghdad Morse badly sent Morse code that is difficult to read bamboo-box equipment manufactured in the Far East, usually Japan bands the frequencies upon which radio amateurs are permitted to operate or the frequency ranges covered by equipment band-plan an agreement to use certain modes on certain frequencies within a given band band policemen a derogatory term for people who consider themselves to be better operators than everybody else and who do not hesitate to offer "advice" to other operators on what they are doing wrong barefoot without an external amplifier BBC quality used in the UK to describe a good quality strong signal bbs packet radio mailbox (bulletin board system) bci broadcast interference bcl broadcast listener (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) bcn beacon (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) bcnu be seeing you (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) bd bad (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) beacon a continuously transmitting device used to assess propagation beam multi element directional antenna big switch a metaphorical "switch" controlling the entire station, as in "pulling the big switch", meaning to close down completely birds nest temporary construction of a circuit in which components are supported in the wiring by their leads or any untidy or poorly constructed device bk break or break in (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) black box commercially manufactured electronic device blower fan used to supply cooling air bn all between or been (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) boat anchor large, heavy or cumbersome piece of equipment boots high powered amplifier (after burner) bottle radio valve (vacuum tube) box of digits digital equipment BR68 a booklet, which was published by the UK Radiocommunications Agency, containing the Terms, Provisions and Limitations applicable to UK Amateur Radio Licences. This document has now been replaced by the new licence, which came into force on 1 December 2006, which includes the Terms, Conditions and Limitations braid-breaker device intended to prevent the RF currents flowing down the outside of coaxial cable braiding from entering equipment brass pounder operator skilled in using the Morse code brass pounding sending Morse code breadboard device to facilitate the temporary construction of a circuit to prove its viability "break!" an exclamation often used by operators wishing to draw attention to their presence on a frequency being used by an established QSO which they wish to join (poor operating practice) break-in a system in which the receiver is enabled between the individual components of a CW transmission breaker a station trying to join an established QSO bright emitter a radio valve employing a directly heated filament, as opposed to an indirectly heated cathode BST British Summer Time bt separation between address and text and between text and signature (CW use only. Sent as a single group, with no space between letters) bth both (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) btr better (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) btw by the way (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) btu back to you (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) bug software problem bug-key semi automatic Morse key (after the red beetle trade-mark of the Vibroplex Company) bunged up the condition existing when a receiver becomes overloaded by strong signals bunny hunt American name for a "foxhunt" (direction finding contest) burner high powered amplifier (short for "after burner") buro qsl bureau (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) burst short portion of a transmission received via reflection from meteor trails, auroras or during a sporadic-e opening or a few cycles of RF superimposed on a signal for synchronisation purposes e.g. the colour burst in an analogue colour TV signal BYLARA British Young Ladies Amateur Radio Association c yes or correct (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) call often used as a short form of "callsign" call book list of callsigns and postal addresses of all UK and Republic of Ireland Amateur Radio Licensees. (Now incorporated into the "RSGB Yearbook", which is published annually) callsign a group of letters and figures, which is unique to each amateur radio operator. These callsigns are issued by the appropriate Government Department of the country in which the station is located. The callsign consists of a prefix, indicating the country, and a suffix, which is unique to each operator e.g. G3NPF and M1AIM where "G3" and "M1", indicate England, and "NPF" and "AIM" are the letters unique to these operators can of worms a procedure or piece of equipment that has many known, or potential, problems cans headphones (earphones) capacity hat a device mounted at the top of a vertical antenna to lower its natural resonant frequency carrier generally, the steady continuous RF component of an amplitude modulated signal, but commonly used to describe any, usually unwanted, steady signal on, or close to, the current operating frequency cb callbook (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) or Citizens Band cba callbook address (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) centre fed wire a wire antenna, where the transmitter/receiver/ATU is connected at the mid-point, via tuned feeders or coaxial cable CEPT European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations. The following member countries (and certain non-member countries marked with an asterisk), have implemented CEPT Recommendation T/R 61-01:- Albania * Ireland Russian Federation * Australia Israel * San Marino * Austria Italy * Slovak Republic * Belgium Latvia * Slovenia Bosnia & Herzegovina Lichtenstein South Africa * Bulgaria Lithuania Spain * Canada * Luxembourg Sweden Croatia Macedonia * Switzerland Cyprus * Malta * Turkey Czech Republic Moldova * Ukraine Denmark Monaco * United Kingdom of Estonia Netherlands Great Britain and Finland New Zealand * Northern Ireland France Norway United States of Germany Peru * America * Greece Poland Vatican City * Hungary Portugal Iceland Romania * Radio Amateurs holding a valid callsign issued by any of the above countries may operate in the UK, subject to the conditions and limitations previously set out in BR68 but now included in the new licence, which came into force on 1 December 2006. Note that for CEPT Recommendation T/R 61-01 purposes, the United Kingdom includes the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands and some of the above countries also include many of their over-seas territories and dependencies cfm confirm or I confirm (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) channel a specific frequency on a given band chatter the condition when a relay fails to change state in a single operation cheque book engineering the purchase of ready built commercial apparatus, as opposed to designing and building one's own equipment cherries the multiple LEDs (usually red and yellow) used on some modern equipment to indicate signal strength instead of a meter chewing the fat general discussion of a variety of subjects, often of a non-amateur radio nature chirp a small, transient, change in frequency at the start of a transmission, most noticeable on CW choppy subject to intermittent interruptions ck check (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ckt circuit (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) cl closing down or call (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) clarifier device that allows either the receive frequency or the transmit frequency, or both, to be independently adjusted on a transceiver that would normally use single frequency operation class of emission a three (or more if necessary) character code, which defines the characteristics of a radio emission. These are internationally agreed by the Telecommunication Convention and are listed in the Radio Regulations. Select Emission Classes for full information. clbk callbook (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) cld called (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) clg calling (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) clicks transient sidebands that occur when the keying characteristics of a CW transmitter are such that the leading and trailing edges of the RF envelope are incorrectly shaped clipper a device for limiting the maximum amplitude of a signal to a particular level clockfull a meter indication at, or very near to, full scale deflection club a local club, society or group catering for amateur radio enthusiasts. e.g. the "Horsham Club" is shorthand for the Horsham Amateur Radio Club cmg coming (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) cnt can't (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) coax co-axial cable code usually means morse code but can mean other coding methods such as the Murray code used in teleprinting or the digital data and instructions constituting a computer programme co-linear antenna in which resonant elements are connected end-to-end, with phasing circuits between them come again repeat your message come back over (CB jargon not normally used by Radio Amateurs) comp computer (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) compression reduction of dynamic range compressor shortened form of "speech compressor" condenser old name for a capacitor condx conditions (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) connected the state that exists when two packet stations are in contact with each other and handshaking is taking place connectors plugs and sockets contest a competition between individual operators, or groups of operators, in which points are generally gained for the number of contacts achieved within a set period of time and, in some cases for the distances between the stations. Note that there are many different types of contest and each has its own set of rules, reporting requirements and scoring criteria copy the act of hearing and understanding a station or the content of a received message counterpoise a conductor located under a wire antenna, but positioned on, or very close to, the ground, which acts as an "artificial earth", against which the antenna may be tuned coz because (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) cpi copy (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) cq general call to any station crd card (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) creepie-peepie hand-held television camera/transmitter cross-band receiving on one band and transmitting on another band crud the generic term for unwanted noise, interference or signals cs callsign (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) CTCSS Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System in which very low frequency audio tones are used to access repeaters instead of the 1750Hz tone-burst. The tones used by repeaters are listed below:- Designator Tone Frequency A 67.0Hz B 71.9Hz C 77.0Hz D 82.5Hz E 88.5Hz F 94.8Hz G 103.5Hz H 110.9Hz J 118.8Hz There are 31 other tones in the full CTCSS range, which are listed below:- 69.3, 74.4, 79.7, 85.5, 91.5, 97.4, 100.0, 107.2, 114.8, 123.0, 127.3, 131.8, 136.5, 141.3, 146.2, 151.4, 156.7, 162.2, 167.9, 173.8, 179.9, 186.2, 192.8, 203.5, 206.5, 210.7, 218.1, 225.7, 233.6, 241.8, 250.3 Partial CTCSS implementation means that a user station must transmit the appropriate CTCSS tone in order to activate a repeater but the station receiver will respond to all signals. Full CTCSS implementation means that in addition to activating a repeater, the user station's receiver will only respond to signals having the appropriate CTCSS tone. cu see you (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) cuagn see you again (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) cud could (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) cul see you later (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) cum come (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) cuz because (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) cw continuous wave (But generally regarded as meaning Morse code) da day (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) dc to blue light very wide bandwidth de from (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) dead band a band upon which no signals can be heard due to poor propagation deaf low in sensitivity or the inability to resolve weak signals df direction finding diff difference (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) digipeater simplex repeater for digital (packet) modes, where handshaking takes place between the two connected stations without involving the intermediate repeater, which only acts as a relay diplexer device for connecting two antennas to a single piece of equipment or two pieces of equipment to a single antenna dippy unreliable or poor quality or of doubtful origin dish the parabolic reflector forming part of a microwave antenna dld delivered (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) dlvd delivered (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) dn down (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) dodgy of doubtful origin or potentially unreliable dog biscuits decibels (frivolous phonetics, not recommended for normal use) doubling the situation when two stations accidentally transmit on the same frequency and at the same time down-link the received signal from a satellite dr dear (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) drift slow, unwanted, change in any operating parameter, but usually in frequency dsb double sideband dsp digital signal processing dsw Russian CW abbreviation for "good bye" (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) dual-band capable of operating on two frequency bands duplex receiving and transmitting on two different frequencies simultaneously dwn down (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) dx distance or rare station DXCC DX Century Club. An award which requires proof of contact with one hundred, or more, different DXCC recognised countries dxpedition a visit to an unusual location in order to activate a rare callsign prefix ears a station's receive capability earwigging listening to a QSO without actually joining in eirp effective isotropic radiated power el element (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) electronic bug fully automatic electronic morse key e-mail electronic mail eme earth-moon-earth end fed wire a wire antenna, usually tuned against ground, where one end is connected directly to the transmitter/receiver/ATU end stop description of a very strong signal (refers to full-scale deflection on the S-meter) enuf enough (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) erp effective radiated power es and (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only). Note that this is actually the old American land-line telegraphy group for the ampersand (&). Es sporadic-e eu Europe (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) eve evening (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ex-government a term describing equipment originally owned and used by Government organisations, usually the military, but disposed of on the open civilian market when no longer required extended tropo VHF propagation mode utilising particular ionisation conditions in the troposphere eyeball QSO meeting face to face (in person) Facebook one of the largest social networking sites fb fine business (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) FEC Forward Error Correction feeder transmission line connecting an antenna to a receiver or transmitter fer for (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) final final transmission (Fone use only) final final extra transmission made by a station who has already signed off (Fone use only) fine business very good or excellent finger trouble errors or problems caused by one's own lack of care or ability fish-fone transmissions from vessels such as fishing boats and trawlers fio for information only (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) firmware computer programme stored in solid state memory fist a Morse operators style of sending when using a straight key fist mic microphone designed to be held in the hand flaky unreliable flame to send an insulting, rude or controversial message via packet radio or e-mail flat topping the condition that exists when an amplifier is overdriven and is unable to amplify signal peaks without distortion fm frequency modulation fone telephony (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) foxhunt direction finding contest (usually on VHF) fq frequency (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) freq frequency (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) front end the input stages of a receiver fsd full scale deflection fsk frequency shift keying FSK441 A digital transmission system designed by K1JT, which is used for meteor scatter communication, primarily on 144MHz FSTV Fast Scan Television (normal TV transmission format) ftp file transfer protocol full gallon maximum permitted power further down the log at a later date (as in "see you further down the log") fwd forward (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) fwiw for what it's worth (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) fyi for your information (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) G5RV a type of multiband wire dipole antenna designed by the late Louis Varney, G5RV ga good afternoon (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) gateway a connection between the Internet and a radio station, usually a repeater, which facilitates communication using VOIP or a device to enable one packet station to contact another packet station on a different band, usually VHF to HF gb good bye (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) gd good day (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ge good evening (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) gear equipment gess guess (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) gg going (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) gld glad (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) gm good morning (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) GMT Greenwich Mean Time gn good night (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) gnd ground (earth) (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) good buddy friend (CB jargon, not normally used by Radio Amateurs) gp ground plane (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) GPS Global Positioning System GRB Gamma-Ray Burst greyline line joining points on the earth's surface where the transition between night and day is occurring gs green stamp (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) gud good (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) gv give (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) gvg giving (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) hagd have a good day (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) hagwe have a good week end (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) Ham Amateur Radio Operator (American slang) hamfest large organised social gathering of radio amateurs, often with an associated Trade Show and/or flea market hand-held small transceiver intended to be used like a mobile 'phone (colloquially known as a walkie-talkie) handshaking the process whereby a digital data link acknowledges receipt or transmission of data handle name (American slang) hard copy a permanent printed version of electronic data hard wired connected by wires rather than computer software hardware actual electronic equipment employing physical components hash rough noise, usually of man-made origin HB9CV a type of VHF beam antenna designed by HB9CV headset headphones, often with integral boom microphone heater the heating element within a radio valve employing an indirectly heated cathode, as opposed to a directly heated filament hf high frequency hf bands the 14MHz, 18MHz, 21MHz, 24MHz and 28MHz amateur bands hh denotes error in sending preceding word (CW use only. Sent as a single group, with no space between letters) hi high (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) or laughter or used to indicate that something is intended to be funny. Roughly synonymous with "lol" (laughing out loud) used on the Internet and in e-mails hollow state using thermionic active devices, e.g. valves (vacuum tubes) homebrew home constructed (as opposed to commercially manufactured) hooting instability hpe hope (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) hq headquarters hr here or hear or hour (CW or RTTY use only) hrd heard (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) hv have (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) hvg having (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) hvy heavy (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) hw how or how copy (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) IARU International Amateur Radio Union idiot box television set idiot's lantern television set II short pause (for thought?) (CW use only) RTTY operators usually use letters (or figures) shift, as appropriate imho in my humble opinion (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) imiinterrogation or repeat or say again (CW use only. Sent as a single group, with no space between letters) in the back of the box a very weak signal (Believed to be a CB expression which should therefore not normally be used by Radio Amateurs) in the front of the box a very strong signal (Believed to be a CB expression which should therefore not normally be used by Radio Amateurs) info information inner conductor the centre conductor of a co-axial cable input frequency the receive frequency of a repeater, i.e. the frequency that stations use to transmit signals to the repeater IOTA Islands On The Air IP Internet Protocol or intermodulation products isb independent sidebands ISWL International Shortwave League ITA2 International Telegraph Alphabet No.2 ITU International Telecommunication Union (the Agency of the United Nations responsible for radio spectrum allocation) jingle-bells RTTY or similar data transmission signals JT44 A digital transmission system designed by K1JT, which is used for tropospheric scatter, ionospheric scatter and eme communication JT6M A digital transmission system designed by K1JT, which is similar to FSK441 but optimised for meteor scatter use on 50MHz junior op operator's son or daughter junk redundant but serviceable items junk box collection of redundant items accumulated over a period of time, but still serviceable and potentially having a use junk sale a sale of equipment, components and associated items, usually conducted as an auction. The items offered for sale are not necessarily "junk" in the dictionary sense of the word k invitation to transmit (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ka starting signal (CW use only. Sent as a single group, with no space between letters) key morse key keyboard mode an operating mode requiring the use of a keyboard and probably a computer, e.g. packet radio, PSK31, or RTTY kit equipment klix key clicks (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) kn invitation for a specific station to transmit (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ladder feeder parallel open wire transmission line, so called because the parallel wires and the insulators separating them resemble a ladder land line hard wired connection over land such as a telephone line lash-up badly constructed item LED Light Emitting Diode leo low earth orbit lf low frequency lf bands the 1.8MHz, 3.5MHz, 7MHz and 10MHz amateur bands lid poor operator linear device capable of amplifying RF signals without distortion (short for "linear amplifier") listening through this phrase is used on VHF repeaters as an alternative to "CQ" lnb low noise block (the down-convertor used with satellite dishes) lng long (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) loaded whip a short, mechanically flexible, vertical antenna using either a coil or a "capacity hat" to resonate it on a lower frequency than its natural resonant frequency local time the time in use at a particular location, e.g. British Summer Time, Eastern Standard Time, Central Standard Time, Pacific Standard Time, etc. locator square a shortened form of "QTH locator square" log a permanent record of station activity logger person who maintains the log of a station on behalf of the operator, especially during a contest lol Internet abreviation meaning "laughing out loud" which is not normally used in Amateur Radio. Roughly synonymous with "hi", which is used to indicate laughter or that something is intended to be funny long path the longer of the two possible "around-the-world" signal propagation paths long wire a wire antenna, usually fed at one end and tuned against ground, where the length is equal to several wavelengths at the frequency being used, but often erroneously used to describe a wire antenna of any random length LORAN A radio navigation system (LOng RAnge Navigation). The current system is LORAN-C which operates at frequencies between 90kHz and 110kHz. The original system was LORAN-A which operated on frequencies within the Amateur 160m Band and caused considerable interference to amateur operations. Fortunately for amateurs, the use of this system has now been discontinued lp long path (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) lsb lower sideband lsn listen (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ltr later or letter (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) lv leave (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) lvg leaving (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) lw long wire (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) mag-mount device for mounting an antenna on a ferrous metal surface, adhesion being achieved by magnetic attraction mag loop magnetic loop antenna Maidenhead Locator System the full name of the current QTH locator system, which has been adopted by the IARU. Now referred to as the "QTH Locator System" maritime mobile operation of a station located in or on a vessel in tidal waters. The suffix "/MM" is appended to the callsign under these conditions martian Morse badly sent morse code that is difficult to read master of ceremonies net controller mcw modulated continuous wave meteor scatter communication mode relying on reflecting radio signals off the ionised trails caused by meteorites entering the earth's atmosphere mgr manager (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) mi my (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) mic microphone mic back to you verbose phrase sometimes used when returning transmission to another station in a QSO (Not good practise) microwaves frequencies above 2GHz microwave bands all those amateur bands above and including the 2.3GHz band mill typewriter (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) mni many (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) mobile operation of a station located in or on a vehicle or vessel in non-tidal waters, or when being carried by the operator e.g. when using hand held equipment. The suffix "/M" is appended to the callsign under these conditions mom moment (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) moonbounce communication mode relying on reflecting radio signals off the moon motor boating very low frequency instability mouth a station's transmit capability mox manually operated transmit/receive switching ms meteor scatter msg message (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) muckite generic term for any non-metallic substance, usually indicating that the exact composition is unknown mult multiplier or multiplex (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) multi-band capable of operating on several bands, e.g. the HF bands, 50MHz and 144MHz multi-hop around-the-world propagation of a radio signal by means of several earth-ionosphere-earth reflections multi-mode capable of operating on several modes, e.g. CW, SSB and FM n no or negative or incorrect or no more (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ncs net control station (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) nd nothing doing (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) negative no or not or not received OK net a group of stations, usually operating on the same frequency, forming a multi-station QSO, often controlled by one of the participants (the net controller) net controller the station overseeing the operation of a net newby a new operator (Used more on the Internet than on Amateur Radio) nicad a nickel-cadmium battery nil nothing or I have nothing for you or not in log (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) nm no more (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) nimh nickel metal hydride node repeater for digital (packet) modes, where handshaking takes place between each of two connected stations and the intermediate repeater, with no direct handshaking between the two stations or any station on a digital network, whether linked by land-line or linked by radio NoV Notice of Variation. This is a change in the conditions relating to a specific UK Amateur Radio Licence, which is issued under the authority of OFCOM, and enables the holder of the specific licence to carry out specified activities not normally permitted under the terms of a "normal" licence novice the holder of a Novice Class Amateur Radio Licence, which has now been discontinued. Novice licences have now been replaced by Foundation Class Licences. Holders of existing Novice Class Licences had their licences upgraded to Intermediate Grade but retained their existing callsigns nr near or number (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) nw now (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ob old boy (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) oc old chap (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) OFCOM Office of Communications. OFCOM is the independent body that assumed the functions and powers of the RA (Radiocommunications Agency) at the end of December 2003. The RA was the UK Government Agency responsible for licensing the use of the entire radio spectrum in the UK off and clear signifies that a station has completed his/her final over and does not intend to continue with the current contact ok correct om old man or husband (Intended for CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only but often used on fone) op operator (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) opr operator (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) oranges & lemons the multiple LEDs (usually red and yellow) used on some modern equipment to indicate signal strength instead of a meter OSCAR Orbital Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio ot old timer (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) oth over-the-horizon (See "Woodpeckers" below) out closing down (Fone use only) out of band description of signals radiated on frequencies outside the permitted frequency bands out of the box the practice of purchasing and using commercial equipment with little or no knowledge or appreciation of its technical details outer conductor the screen or braid of a co-axial or screened cable output frequency the transmit frequency of a repeater, i.e. the frequency that stations use to receive signals from the repeater over period of transmission from a station, during a QSO, which will probably consist of several such "overs" or an invitation to transmit (Fone use only) over and out closing down but will listen to your final transmission (Fone use only) ow old woman (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) pa power amplifier packet burst of digital data. (Also short for "packet radio") packet cluster a group of interlinked packet radio stations, usually relaying DX information packet radio a digital data transmission system that transmits bursts (i.e. packets) of data. Acknowledgement of correct receipt is required before transmission of the subsequent packet commences PACTOR a packet like mode based on AMTOR paddle the operating lever of a bug key pbl preamble (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) peak the highest amplitude attained by a signal personal name (CB jargon not normally used by Radio Amateurs) phasing rig an SSB transmitter where the SSB signal is generated by the vector addition of phase shifted AF and RF signals, rather than by the use of a balanced modulator and filters phonetic alphabet a list of words used to confirm individual letters under adverse conditions, the initial letter of the word being the same as the letter being confirmed. Although there are several phonetic alphabets in use around the world and their use is not forbidden, UK Amateur Radio operators are advised to use the alphabet contained in Appendix S14 of the Radio Regulations and generally known as the "NATO Phonetic Alphabet". Brian Kelk's Page is an excellent source of further information about phonetic alphabets, including some that are really bizarre. Letter NATO British WW2 British WW1 International (Recommended) (No longer in common use - Not recommended) A Alpha Abel Ack Amsterdam B Bravo Baker Beer Baltimore C Charlie Charlie Charlie Casablanca D Delta Dog Don Denmark E Echo Easy Edward Edison F Foxtrot Fox Freddy Florida G Golf George George Gallipoli H Hotel How Harry Havana I India Item Ink Italia J Juliet Jig Johnnie Jerusalem K Kilo King King Kilogram L Lima Love London Liverpool M Mike Mike Monkey Madagascar N November Nan Nuts New York O Oscar Oboe Orange Oslo P Papa Peter Pip Paris Q Quebec Queen Queen Quebec R Romeo Roger Robert Roma S Sierra Sugar Sugar Santiago T Tango Tare Toc Tripoli U Uniform Uncle Uncle Uppsala V Victor Victor Vic Valencia W Whiskey William William Washington X X-ray X-ray X-ray Xanthippe Y Yankee Yoke Yorker Yokohama Z Zulu Zebra Zebra Zurich pile-up large number of stations calling on one frequency ping very short portion of a transmission received via reflection from meteor trails, auroras or during a sporadic-e opening or an automatic hand-shaking signal sent during digital data transmission to prevent time-out pink noise wideband noise with almost constant amplitude but some small peaks or spikes pink ticket A notice, issued by the licencing authority, informing a licence holder of an infringement of the regulations. So called because of the colour of the paper on which such warnings were printed pip-tone short duration audible tone, transmitted just before a station changes from transmit to receive, normally only used under difficult VHF conditions when using SSB pirate unlicenced operator pkg packing or package (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) PL259 the Amphenol catalogue number of a type of co-axial plug in the "UHF" generic series. Often erroneously used to indicate the generic series itself plumber's delight antenna constructed entirely from metal tubing and requiring no insulators plumbing the mechanical arrangements used in UHF and microwave equipment, such as resonant cavities and Lecher lines pmr private mobile radio (as used by (say) a taxi firm) poll the action of one digital node (station) "asking" another for information, such as confirmation of receipt of data packet port the input or output connection to a piece of equipment, usually a computer or other digital device or a microwave component portable operation of a station at a fixed location that is not the registered address stated on the licence. The suffix "/P" may be appended to the callsign under these conditions pounding brass sending Morse code pov point of view (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) preamp pre-amplifier prefix the part of a callsign that denotes the country of origin. Select the comprehensive list of Amateur Radio Prefixes for details. pse please (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) psk phase shift keying PSK31 a digital data transmission mode used by radio amateurs pt point (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ptt press to talk pull the big switch close down the station and switch off the equipment pwr power (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) px prefix or press (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) Q-fiver device intended to improve the readability of received signals that is usually an "add on" unit to an existing receiver. Historically, a Q-fiver was an ex-american military "Command Receiver", capable of being tuned to the (then) ubiquitous IF of 465kHz but having much better selectivity than the main receiver. qra address, often expressed as a locator code (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qra locator an obsolete system for indicating a station's geographical location by a five-character code that recurs at several positions on the earth's surface, e.g. ZK08F qrg frequency (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qrk readability or price/cost (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qrl busy (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qrm interference (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qrn atmospheric noise/static (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qro high power (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qrp low power (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qrq send faster (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qrs send slower (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qrss send extremely slowly, e.g. at a speed of one word per minute, or less. (Specialised mode used on VLF bands). (No official Q-Code meaning) qrt stop sending or close down station (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qru nothing further to say (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qrv ready or operational (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qrx wait (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qrz who is calling me (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qsa signal strength (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qsb fading (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qsk break-in (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qsl all received OK (See Q-Code list for full meaning) also used as a short form of "qsl card" qsll I will send a QSL card when I receive one from you (No official Q-Code meaning) qsl bureau organisation that allows stations to send QSL cards in bulk which are then distributed to the individual recipients qsl card confirmation of a contact, usually in post-card format qsl manager person who deals with the sending and receiving of QSL cards on behalf of a station qso contact (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qsp relay a message or the relayed message itself (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qst officially unassigned Q-Code, but adopted by the American Radio Relay League to mean "CQ ARRL members". Also the title of the ARRL's official journal. qsx indicates that a station is listening for replies on a frequency that is different from his transmitting frequency, e.g. "qsx up 5" means listening 5kHz above transmitting frequency (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qsy change frequency (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qth location (See Q-Code list for full meaning) qth locator the current IARU system for indicating a station's geographical location by a six-character code that is unique to one small area of the earth's surface, e.g. IO90TW. This six-character code defines an area 0.5 minutes of longitude wide by 2.5 minutes of latitude high. Select "Locator and Zone Maps" for further information. qth locator square the area defined by the first four characters of a QTH locator code, e.g. IO90, which is an area of the Earth's surface 2 degrees of longitude wide by 1 degree of latitude high. There are 32,400 such squares and each has a unique reference within the range AA00 to RR99. Note that these "squares" are actually trapezia (but virtually rectangular), which are further divided into 576 sub-squares, each 0.5 minutes of longitude wide by 2.5 minutes of latitude high. These sub-squares are defined by the last two characters of a QTH locator code, which are within the range AA to XX, e.g. TW. Select "Locator and Zone Maps" for further information. qthr name and address correct in the UK Call Book (No official Q-Code meaning) quad an antenna with a rectangular format, usually consisting of wire elements mounted on spreaders "quert" phonetic pronunciation of "qrt", as in "going quert", which means "closing down" quietening an indication of the strength of a received FM signal by estimating the degree of receiver noise reduction r all received OK or the decimal point (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) RA Radiocommunications Agency. This was the UK Government Agency responsible for licensing the use of the entire radio spectrum in the UK. The powers and functions of the RA were transferred to OFCOM (The Office of Communications) at the end of December 2003. radials wires or rods located at the base of a vertical antenna, connected to form an "artificial earth" against which the antenna may be tuned rag-chew long contact during which many subjects are discussed, often of a general, non-amateur radio, nature RAIBC Radio Amateur Invalid and Blind Club rain static pulsating noise caused by statically charged rain falling on the antenna rally short for "mobile rally". These used to be informal gatherings of mobile radio operators held to promote discussion about equipment, operating practices and operational safety, but which have now become large well organised Trade Shows and "radio boot-sales" rc ragchew (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) rcd received (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) rcvr receiver (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) RDFT Redundant Digital File Transfer. This is a protocol for the transmission of any digital file via an analogue radio link, but the main Amateur Radio application is in "digital SSTV". re concerning or regarding (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) read the act of hearing and understanding another station read the mail obtain information by listening to a station's QSOs prior to actually making contact with the station readout the device that displays visual data, other than pictures, on a piece of equipment ref reference or refer to (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) report message indicating the subjective readability, signal strength and tone quality of a received signal (tone quality on CW only). Amateur Radio signal reports are given as a two or three figure group, using the following criteria:- r (Readability) 1 Unreadable 2 Barely readible, with only occasional words distinguishable 3 Readable with considerable difficulty 4 Readable with practically no difficulty 5 Perfectly readable s (Signal strength) 1 Faint signals, barely perceptible 2 Very weak signals 3 Weak signals 4 Fair signals 5 Fairly good signals 6 Good signals 7 Moderately strong signals 8 Strong signals 9 Extremely strong signals t (Tone quality) (CW use only) 1 Extremely rough, hissing note 2 Very rough ac note with no trace of musicality 3 Rough, low pitched ac note, but slightly musical 4 Rather rough ac note, but moderately musical 5 Fairly musical note, but with some modulation 6 Musical note, but with a trace of modulation 7 Nearly pure tone with trace of ripple modulation 8 Near perfect tone with slight trace of modulation 9 Perfect tone with no trace of ripple or modulation If a CW signal appears to be crystal controlled, the letter "x" may be appended to the rst report. If there is chirp on the signal, the letter "c" should be appended and if there are key- clicks, the letter "k" should be appended. Although not used by Amateur Radio operators, except on the experimental 60m (5MHz) band, broadcast signal reception is normally reported, by SWLs, using the SINPO system. repeater a device which receives signals on one frequency and retransmits the modulation content on another frequency within the same band rf radio frequency rfi radio frequency interference ribbon feeder flat parallel twin transmission line rice-box equipment manufactured in the Far East, usually Japan rig transmitter/receiver or Remote Imaging Group roger all received OK roller coaster variable inductor using a rotatable coil with a tapping point formed by a small fixed roller running on the turns of the coil rotator device for rotating a directional antenna rpt repeat or report (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) rough noise wideband noise with non-constant amplitude including many peaks and spikes RSGB Radio Society of Great Britain rst letter group immediately preceding the signal report (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) RTTY radio teletype rubber duck a small, flexible, antenna used on hand-held equipment rubber crystal a quartz crystal incorporated into a circuit that allows its operating frequency to be varied running a list the practise of compiling a list of calling stations prior to working them individually. Often used by DX stations when dealing with a pile-up rx receive or receiver (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) S-meter device incorporated into a receiver that indicates signal strength sa say (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) sae self addressed envelope SAREX Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment sase stamped, self addressed envelope (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) say again repeat scope oscilloscope sdr software defined radio serial number number appended to a contest report that indicates the number of contacts achieved since the start of the contest. Serial numbers normally start at 001 and increment by one for each new station worked sez says (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) sgd signed (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) shack room containing the amateur radio station shared band a frequency band in which more than one user service has operating rights sheepskin operating proficiency certificate (e.g. DXCC) shift frequency change used in fsk or the separation between a repeater's input and output channels short path the shorter of the two possible "around-the-world" signal propagation paths shud should (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) SID Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance side swiper a Morse key in which the operating lever moves from side to side side tone a signal injected into the station receiver during transmission, such that the transmitted signal may be monitored sig signal or signature (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) sig gen signal generator silent key a deceased Radio Amateur simplex receiving and transmitting sequentially on the same frequency SINAD acronym for "signal plus noise and distortion". A sensitivity measurement normally associated with FM receivers SINPO the system of reporting signals from broadcast and other stations where an accurate and repeatable subjective assessment of reception conditions is required. The SINPO code is defined in CCIR Recommendation 251, but the "RST equivalents" are not part of that recommendation, being specific to the "5MHz Experiment". Although the normal Amateur Radio convention of reporting only readability and signal strength is sometimes considered to be inadequate, the SINPO code is not normally used by Radio Amateurs. Its use was, however, obligatory for those stations participating in the "5MHz Experiment", which began in August 2002, during which propagation studies were carried out in conjunction with other UK amateur, military and military cadet stations. UK Amateur Radio operators who had been granted the necessary NoV, were permitted to operate on seven spot frequencies in the 5MHz band during this experiment. New regulations came into force on 01.01.13 giving access to additional frequencies and removing the requirement to use the SINPO reporting system during "normal" QSOs. The RST values normally used by Radio Amateurs are shown in brackets below and are the recommended equivalents to be used when determining SINPO reports of signals on the 5MHz Band. S - Signal strength (QSA) 1 Barely audible (S2 or below) 2 Poor (S3 or S4) 3 Fair (S5 or S6) 4 Good (S7 or S8) 5 Excellent (S9 or above) I - Interference from other signals (QRM) 1 Extreme (S9 or above) 2 Severe (S7 or S8) 3 Moderate (S5 or S6) 4 Slight (S3 or S4) 5 Nil (S2 or below) N - Noise, static etc (QRN) 1 Extreme (S9 or above) 2 Severe (S7 or S8) 3 Moderate (S5 or S6) 4 Slight (S3 or S4) 5 Nil (S2 or below) * P - Propagation effects (QSB and multipath) 1 Extreme (QSB > 6 S-points or extremely Auroral) 2 Severe (QSB of 6 S-points or strong multipath) 3 Moderate (QSB of 4 S-points or medium multipath) 4 Slight (QSB of 2 S-points or slight multipath) 5 Nil (No QSB or multipath) O - Overall rating (QRK) 1 Barely audible (Extremely difficult to read) 2 Poor (Poor readability, quality unassessable) 3 Fair (Fairly good readability and quality) 4 Good (Good readability and quality) 5 Excellent (Excellent readability and quality) * Note that when assessing the "Propagation" parameter, the most predominant effect from fading (QSB) and Doppler/multipath (phase distortion or auroral effects) is used to determine the "P" value. SITOR acronym for "simplex teletype over radio" sk end of work (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only. Sent as a single group, with no space between letters) or silent key (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) sked schedule sky-hook the means whereby an antenna is held aloft slow-scan slow scan television smps switch mode power supply sn soon (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) snale-mail the normal postal system as opposed to e-mail SO239 the Amphenol catalogue number of a type of co-axial socket in the "UHF" generic series. Often erroneously used to indicate the generic series itself software the code that constitutes a computer programme solid state using non-thermionic active devices, e.g. transistors SOTA Summits On The Air sp short path (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) sparkle a subjective description of modulation that is not "woolly" speaker shortened form of "loud speaker" speech clipper a rudimentary form of speech processor which limits the peak amplitude of the speech waveform to a particular level speech compressor alternative name for a speech processor speech mangler alternative name for a speech processor (facetious) speech processor device for increasing the "talk-power" of a transmission by compressing the dynamic range of the modulating audio spike short duration, high amplitude signal super-imposed upon another signal spitch high pitched transient interference from an adjacent signal splatter interference from the sidebands of an adjacent signal split frequency receiving and transmitting sequentially on different frequencies spot a message on a DX cluster indicating the presence and frequency of a particular station sporadic-e the propagation mode occasionally occurring on the VHF and higher HF bands when a particular type of ionisation is present in the E-layer of the ionosphere spread the total bandwidth occupied by a signal sprog very young operator or child sproggy spurious emission from a transmitter spur spurious internally generated signal in a receiver or from a transmitter square short for "QTH locator square" in context of "squares worked", "square chasing" etc square eyes a malady caused by watching too much television! squeaky a person, causing deliberate interference using a disguised voice squelch a system whereby receiver and atmospheric noise is suppressed in the absence of a received signal sri sorry (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ss sweepstakes (In America, CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ssb single sideband sstv slow scan television stateside The United States of America static crashes the background noise caused by atmospheric electrical discharges static mobile unofficial designation indicating that the station is permanently installed in a vehicle that is currently parked. Note that the correct designation is "mobile" or "/M", regardless of whether the vehicle is parked or moving. station manager wife (facetious) station master net controller stn station (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) straight key manually operated morse key sub-audible tones the very low frequency CTCSS audio tones that some repeaters use instead of, or in addition to, the 1750Hz tone-burst, to initiate access. See "CTCSS" above for a list of the currently used tones suffix the part of a callsign directly following the prefix sum some (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) surplus term used to describe equipment no longer required by the original owner and disposed of on the open market svc service or prefix to service message (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) "swer" phonetic pronunciation of the abbreviation "swr" "swer-bridge" phonetic pronunciation of "swr bridge" swr standing wave ratio swr bridge a device for measuring the standing wave ratio existing on a transmission line swl short wave listener tail ending the practice of calling a station immediately following the end of a transmission from the station that is currently being worked, without waiting for the first station to sign off (poor operating practice) talk-in operation intended to provided assistance to mobile stations requiring directions to a rally or similar event talk up attempt to increase the signal strength of an SSB transmission, the modulation level of an AM transmission, or the deviation level of an FM transmission, by speaking loudly talk power the perceived ability of a transmitter to produce readable signals based on modulation criteria rather than signal strength TCP/IP Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol temp temporary or temperature (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ten-four message understood (CB jargon, believed to derive from American Police radio procedures, not normally used by Radio Amateurs) test contest (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) or test transmission tfc traffic (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) thin audio audio lacking base and upper treble frequencies this end here or is (verbose CB jargon, not recommended for amateur use) this side here or is (verbose CB jargon, not recommended for amateur use) this way here or is (verbose CB jargon, not recommended for amateur use) three legged fuse a transistor tia thanks in advance (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ticket Amateur Radio Licence time-out automatic cessation of communications, after a pre-determined period, caused by inactivity tits up broken or not working correctly (not recommended for amateur use) tks thanks (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) tmw tomorrow (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) tnc terminal node controller (used for decoding packet radio signals) tnx thanks (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) tone-burst the 1750Hz tone used to open a repeater link top band the 1.8MHz amateur band tr transmit (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) t/r transmit/receive (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) transceiver combined transmitter and receiver transponder a device which receives signals on one frequency band and retransmits them on another frequency band trbl treble or trouble (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) trf tuned radio frequency trix tricks (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) trx transceiver (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) tt that (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) tts that is (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) tu thank you (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) tube radio valve (abbreviation of the American term "vacuum tube") tune-up adjust equipment, usually a transmitter tune for maximum smoke adjust a transmitter to generate its maximum power output turns on the coil age (e.g. 60 years old = 60 turns on the coil) tweet a message sent or received via Twitter twisted pair telephone line Twitter one of the largest social networking sites tvi television interference tx transmit or transmitter (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) txt text (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) u you (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) ufb ultra fine business (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) uhf ultra high frequency uhf bands the 432MHz and 1296MHz amateur bands. Also the American 902MHz amateur band unlis unlicensed (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) up-link the transmitted signal to a satelite ur your or you are (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) url Universal Resource Locator urs yours (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) usb upper sideband or universal serial bus UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time. For all practical purposes, this is the same as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) v volts valve thermionic device referred to in America as a "vacuum tube" vertical vertically polarised antenna ve understood (CW use only. Sent as a single group, with no space between letters. RTTY operators normally use "R") vert vertical (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) vfb very fine business (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) vfo variable frequency oscillator vhf very high frequency vhf bands the 50MHz, 70MHz and 144MHz amateur bands. Also the American 220MHz amateur band virus malicious software secretly installed on a computer vlf very low frequency vlf bands the 73kHz and 136kHz amateur bands VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol vox voice operated transmit/receive switching vsb vestigial sideband vswr voltage standing wave ratio vy very (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) w watts wa word after (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) WAB Worked All Britain WACRAL World Association of Christian Radio Amateurs and Listeners walkie-talkie colloquial slang for a hand-held transceiver, other than a mobile 'phone wat what (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) watsa what say (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) WAMRAC World Association of Methodist Radio Amateurs and Clubs (now renamed WACRAL) WARC World Administrative Radio Conference (organised by the ITU) WARC Bands the 10MHz, 18MHz and 24MHz bands. These are the latest bands to be released to the Amateur Radio Service by decisions taken at a World Administrative Radio Conference wb word before (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) wet string description of an antenna, usually indicating poor performance (as in "the antenna is a piece of wet string") wd word (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) wds words (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) whip antenna a short, vertical, antenna, usually mechanically flexible whiskeys watts (CB jargon not normally used on Amateur Radio) white noise constant amplitude wideband noise, such as residual circuit noise in a receiver with no incoming signals white-stick op blind operator wid with (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) wireless old name for radio, but now "re-discovered" to indicate the interconnection of any electronic devices without a direct, hard-wired connection wkd worked (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) wkg working (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) wl will or well (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) woodpeckers HF over-the-horizon military radar systems using wideband pulse modulation which cause considerable interference across the HF spectrum woolly a subjective description of muffled or indistinct modulation work be in contact with working conditions equipment details wpm words per minute (When estimating Morse speeds, the word "PARIS" is regarded as the standard length word) WRC World Radiocommunications Conference (organised by the ITU) wrd word (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) wrk work (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) WSJT Weak Signal Communication by K1JT. This is a computer programme written by K1JT, which decodes FSK441, JT44 and JT6M signals and generates appropriate replies. These types of transmissions are used for meteor scatter, tropospheric scatter, ionospheric scatter and eme communication, on the VHF and UHF bands wud would (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) wug or wugite generic term for any non-metallic substance, usually indicating that the exact composition is unknown wx weather (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) xcvr transceiver (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) xmas Christmas (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) xmtr transmitter (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) xtal quartz crystal (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) xyf ex-wife (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) xyl wife x squared yl ex-wife (ex-xyl) yagi a multi-element directional antenna yf wife (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) yl young lady or girl friend yr year (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) z zulu time (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) zepp an end fed wire antenna, using a ladder feeder with only one side of the feeder connected to the antenna. (Zepp is short for Zeppelin, the aircraft which first used this type of antenna) zilch nothing or zero zones geographical areas, surrounded by arbitrary boundaries, and assigned numbers by the ITU and CQ Magazine. Unfortunately the two zoning systems are not mutually compatible and neither is compatible with the QTH Locator System. For example, the British Isles are in ITU Zone 27, CQ Zone 14 and QTH Locator fields IN, IO, IP and JO. Select "Locator and Zone Maps" for further information. zulu time Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) 5RV short for "G5RV", which is a type of multiband wire dipole antenna designed by the late Louis Varney, G5RV 30 I have nothing more to send (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) 33 fondest regards (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) 55 best success (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) 73 best wishes (Intended for CW use but often used on fone) 88 love and kisses (Intended for CW use but often used on fone) 99 * good health (See note below) 100 * God bless (See note below) 141 * God be with you until we meet again (See note below) 161 (73+88) best regards to you and your YL/XYL (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) 501 * a combination of 73+88+99+100+141 (See note below) Note * These codes have been originated by WACRAL for use in contacts between its members. These codes should NEVER be used in normal Amateur Radio activities, and preferably should never be used at all, as Amateur Radio is not an appropriate place for religion and was never intended as a medium to promote religious beliefs or propaganda.
Like most specialized hobbies or activities, Amateur Radio has its own jargon, which is often meaningless to everybody else. The more common abbreviations and expressions used in Amateur Radio contacts are defined below.
It is interesting to note that many of the abbreviations intended for use in Morse code messages are now being used in e-mails and mobile ‘phone text messages, although it is doubtful whether the users of these methods of communication realise this historical significance.
Note that the following list is by no means exhaustive and only defines the meanings applicable to Amateur Radio usage. References to licensing matters relate to the United Kingdom and are not necessarily true for other countries.