Common Abbreviations used in Amateur Radio

Technical and engineering terms, abbreviations and jargon retain their normally accepted meanings when used in an Amateur Radio context.  However, some may also have the additional alternative meanings that are defined below.  Some standard terms and abbreviations, which do not have additional meanings, are included in the list for the benefit of readers who are not familiar with their usage but have heard them on the amateur bands.

aa                all after (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) or End of Line (CW use
                  only. Sent as a single group, with no space between letters) or 
                  artificial aerial
ab                all before (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
abt               about (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ack               automatic acknowledgment of uncorrupted digital data receipt
across the pond   on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean
activate          operate a station from a specific location, such as a rare
                  country that normally has no resident Radio Amateurs
adee              addressee (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
adr               address (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ads               address (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
af                audio frequency
after burner      high powered amplifier
"again"           shortened version of "say again" which is often used to indicate
                  that a repeat is required
agn               again (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
alias             a short word or group of characters used to identify a digipeater,
                  as an alternative to the full callsign
alpha time        local time, e.g. BST, EST, PST etc.
am                amplitude modulation
AMSAT             Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation
AMTOR             "Amateur Teleprinting Over Radio", an error correcting data
                  transmission system based on the marine SITOR system
amu               antenna matching unit
ancient mod       facetious meaning of "AM" (Amplitude Modulation)
ani               any (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ans               answer (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ant               antenna (aerial) (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ar                end of message (CW use only.  Sent as a single group, with no
                  space between letters)
armchair copy     description of good quality strong signal with no interference
ARRL              American Radio Relay League
artificial aerial old name for a dummy load, particularly with respect to a type
                  of amateur radio licence issued in the UK, prior to World War II,
                  which allowed the licensee to build and operate a wireless (radio)
                  transmitter, but not to radiate a signal outside the confines of
                  the registered address
ARQ               Automatic Repeat Request
as                wait (CW use only.  Sent as a single group, with no space between
                  letters)
at                previously used for the @ sign in e-mail addresses.  Now
                  superseded by "AC".(CW use only.  Sent as a single group, with no
                  spaces between letters) 
atv               amateur television (fast scan)
atu               antenna tuning unit
aurora            The Aurora Borealis or Aurora Australis (Northern and Southern
                  Lights respectively).  VHF signals may be "bounced off" these
                  ionised gas layers in the upper atmosphere
AX25              transmission protocol used for amateur packet radio operation
b4                before (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
back              over (CB jargon not normally used by Radio Amateurs)
Baghdad Morse     badly sent Morse code that is difficult to read
bamboo-box        equipment manufactured in the Far East, usually Japan
bands             the frequencies upon which radio amateurs are permitted to
                  operate or the frequency ranges covered by equipment
band-plan         an agreement to use certain modes on certain frequencies within
                  a given band
band policemen    a derogatory term for people who consider themselves to be
                  better operators than everybody else and who do not hesitate to
                  offer "advice" to other operators on what they are doing wrong
barefoot          without an external amplifier
BBC quality       used in the UK to describe a good quality strong signal
bbs               packet radio mailbox (bulletin board system)
bci               broadcast interference
bcl               broadcast listener (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
bcn               beacon (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
bcnu              be seeing you (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
bd                bad (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
beacon            a continuously transmitting device used to assess propagation
beam              multi element directional antenna
big switch        a metaphorical "switch" controlling the entire station, as in
                  "pulling the big switch", meaning to close down completely
birds nest        temporary construction of a circuit in which components are
                  supported in the wiring by their leads or any untidy or poorly
                  constructed device
bk                break or break in (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) 
black box         commercially manufactured electronic device
blower            fan used to supply cooling air
bn                all between or been (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
boat anchor       large, heavy or cumbersome piece of equipment
boots             high powered amplifier (after burner)
bottle            radio valve (vacuum tube)
box of digits     digital equipment
BR68              a booklet, which was published by the UK Radiocommunications
                  Agency, containing the Terms, Provisions and Limitations
                  applicable to UK Amateur Radio Licences.  This document has now
                  been replaced by the new licence, which came into force on 
                  1 December 2006, which includes the Terms, Conditions and
                  Limitations
braid-breaker     device intended to prevent the RF currents flowing down the
                  outside of coaxial cable braiding from entering equipment
brass pounder     operator skilled in using the Morse code
brass pounding    sending Morse code
breadboard        device to facilitate the temporary construction of a circuit to
                  prove its viability
"break!"          an exclamation often used by operators wishing to draw attention
                  to their presence on a frequency being used by an established
                  QSO which they wish to join (poor operating practice)
break-in          a system in which the receiver is enabled between the individual
                  components of a CW transmission
breaker           a station trying to join an established QSO
bright emitter    a radio valve employing a directly heated filament, as opposed
                  to an indirectly heated cathode
BST               British Summer Time
bt                separation between address and text and between text and
                  signature (CW use only.  Sent as a single group, with no space
                  between letters)
bth               both (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
btr               better (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
btw               by the way (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) 
btu               back to you (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
bug               software problem
bug-key           semi automatic Morse key (after the red beetle trade-mark of
                  the Vibroplex Company)
bunged up         the condition existing when a receiver becomes overloaded by
                  strong signals
bunny hunt        American name for a "foxhunt" (direction finding contest)
burner            high powered amplifier (short for "after burner")
buro              qsl bureau (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
burst             short portion of a transmission received via reflection from
                  meteor trails, auroras or during a sporadic-e opening or a few
                  cycles of RF superimposed on a signal for synchronisation
                  purposes e.g. the colour burst in an analogue colour TV signal
BYLARA            British Young Ladies Amateur Radio Association
c                 yes or correct (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
call              often used as a short form of "callsign"
call book         list of callsigns and postal addresses of all UK and Republic
                  of Ireland Amateur Radio Licensees.  (Now incorporated into the
                  "RSGB Yearbook", which is published annually)
callsign          a group of letters and figures, which is unique to each amateur
                  radio operator.   These callsigns are issued by the appropriate
                  Government Department of the country in which the station is
                  located.  The callsign consists of a prefix, indicating the
                  country, and a suffix, which is unique to each operator e.g.
                  G3NPF and M1AIM where "G3" and "M1", indicate England, and "NPF"
                  and "AIM" are the letters unique to these operators
can of worms      a procedure or piece of equipment that has many known, or
                  potential, problems
cans              headphones (earphones)
capacity hat      a device mounted at the top of a vertical antenna to lower its
                  natural resonant frequency
carrier           generally, the steady continuous RF component of an amplitude
                  modulated signal, but commonly used to describe any, usually
                  unwanted, steady signal on, or close to, the current operating
                  frequency
cb                callbook (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) or Citizens Band
cba               callbook address (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
centre fed wire   a wire antenna, where the transmitter/receiver/ATU is connected
                  at the mid-point, via tuned feeders or coaxial cable
CEPT              European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications
                  Administrations.  The following member countries (and certain
                  non-member countries marked with an asterisk), have implemented
                  CEPT Recommendation T/R 61-01:-

                    Albania *              Ireland            Russian Federation *
                    Australia              Israel *           San Marino *
                    Austria                Italy *            Slovak Republic *
                    Belgium                Latvia *           Slovenia
                    Bosnia & Herzegovina   Lichtenstein       South Africa *
                    Bulgaria               Lithuania          Spain *
                    Canada *               Luxembourg         Sweden
                    Croatia                Macedonia *        Switzerland    
                    Cyprus *               Malta *            Turkey
                    Czech Republic         Moldova *          Ukraine 
                    Denmark                Monaco *           United Kingdom of
                    Estonia                Netherlands        Great Britain and
                    Finland                New Zealand *      Northern Ireland       
                    France                 Norway             United States of
                    Germany                Peru *             America *
                    Greece                 Poland             Vatican City *
                    Hungary                Portugal
                    Iceland                Romania *
                    
                  Radio Amateurs holding a valid callsign issued by any of the
                  above countries may operate in the UK, subject to the conditions
                  and limitations previously set out in BR68 but now included in
                  the new licence, which came into force on 1 December 2006.  Note
                  that for CEPT Recommendation T/R 61-01 purposes, the United
                  Kingdom includes the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands and
                  some of the above countries also include many of their over-seas
                  territories and dependencies
cfm               confirm or I confirm (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
channel           a specific frequency on a given band
chatter           the condition when a relay fails to change state in a single
                  operation
cheque book
 engineering      the purchase of ready built commercial apparatus, as opposed to    
                  designing and building one's own equipment
cherries          the multiple LEDs (usually red and yellow) used on some modern
                  equipment to indicate signal strength instead of a meter 
chewing the fat   general discussion of a variety of subjects, often of a
                  non-amateur radio nature
chirp             a small, transient, change in frequency at the start of a
                  transmission, most noticeable on CW
choppy            subject to intermittent interruptions
ck                check (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ckt               circuit (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
cl                closing down or call (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
clarifier         device that allows either the receive frequency or the transmit
                  frequency, or both, to be independently adjusted on a transceiver
                  that would normally use single frequency operation
class of emission a three (or more if necessary) character code, which defines the
                  characteristics of a radio emission.  These are internationally
                  agreed by the Telecommunication Convention and are listed in the
                  Radio Regulations.  Select Emission Classes for full information.
clbk              callbook (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
cld               called (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
clg               calling (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
clicks            transient sidebands that occur when the keying characteristics of
                  a CW transmitter are such that the leading and trailing edges of
                  the RF envelope are incorrectly shaped
clipper           a device for limiting the maximum amplitude of a signal to a
                  particular level
clockfull         a meter indication at, or very near to, full scale deflection
club              a local club, society or group catering for amateur radio
                  enthusiasts.  e.g. the "Horsham Club" is shorthand for the
                  Horsham Amateur Radio Club
cmg               coming (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
cnt               can't (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
coax              co-axial cable
code              usually means morse code but can mean other coding methods such
                  as the Murray code used in teleprinting or the digital data and
                  instructions constituting a computer programme
co-linear         antenna in which resonant elements are connected end-to-end, with
                  phasing circuits between them
come again        repeat your message
come back         over (CB jargon not normally used by Radio Amateurs)
comp              computer (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
compression       reduction of dynamic range
compressor        shortened form of "speech compressor"
condenser         old name for a capacitor
condx             conditions (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
connected         the state that exists when two packet stations are in contact
                  with each other and handshaking is taking place
connectors        plugs and sockets
contest           a competition between individual operators, or groups of
                  operators, in which points are generally gained for the number
                  of contacts achieved within a set period of time and, in some
                  cases for the distances between the stations.  Note that there
                  are many different types of contest and each has its own set of
                  rules, reporting requirements and scoring criteria
copy              the act of hearing and understanding a station or the content of
                  a received message
counterpoise      a conductor located under a wire antenna, but positioned on, or
                  very close to, the ground, which acts as an "artificial earth",
                  against which the antenna may be tuned
coz               because (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
cpi               copy (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
cq                general call to any station
crd               card (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
creepie-peepie    hand-held television camera/transmitter
cross-band        receiving on one band and transmitting on another band
crud              the generic term for unwanted noise, interference or signals
cs                callsign (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
CTCSS             Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System in which very low frequency
                  audio tones are used to access repeaters instead of the 1750Hz
                  tone-burst.  The tones used by repeaters are listed below:-

                          Designator    Tone Frequency
                              A             67.0Hz
                              B             71.9Hz
                              C             77.0Hz
                              D             82.5Hz
                              E             88.5Hz
                              F             94.8Hz
                              G             103.5Hz
                              H             110.9Hz
                              J             118.8Hz

                  There are 31 other tones in the full CTCSS range, which are
                  listed below:-

                  69.3, 74.4, 79.7, 85.5, 91.5, 97.4, 100.0, 107.2, 114.8, 123.0,
                  127.3, 131.8, 136.5, 141.3, 146.2, 151.4, 156.7, 162.2, 167.9,
                  173.8, 179.9, 186.2, 192.8, 203.5, 206.5, 210.7, 218.1, 225.7,
                  233.6, 241.8, 250.3

                  Partial CTCSS implementation means that a user station must
                  transmit the appropriate CTCSS tone in order to activate a
                  repeater but the station receiver will respond to all signals.
                  Full CTCSS implementation means that in addition to activating
                  a repeater, the user station's receiver will only respond to
                  signals having the appropriate CTCSS tone.
cu                see you (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
cuagn             see you again (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
cud               could (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
cul               see you later (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
cum               come (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
cuz               because (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
cw                continuous wave (But generally regarded as meaning Morse code)
da                day (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
dc to blue light  very wide bandwidth
de                from (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
dead band         a band upon which no signals can be heard due to poor propagation
deaf              low in sensitivity or the inability to resolve weak signals
df                direction finding
diff              difference (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
digipeater        simplex repeater for digital (packet) modes, where handshaking
                  takes place between the two connected stations without involving
                  the intermediate repeater, which only acts as a relay 
diplexer          device for connecting two antennas to a single piece of equipment
                  or two pieces of equipment to a single antenna
dippy             unreliable or poor quality or of doubtful origin
dish              the parabolic reflector forming part of a microwave antenna
dld               delivered (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
dlvd              delivered (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
dn                down (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
dodgy             of doubtful origin or potentially unreliable
dog biscuits      decibels (frivolous phonetics, not recommended for normal use)
doubling          the situation when two stations accidentally transmit on the same
                  frequency and at the same time
down-link         the received signal from a satellite
dr                dear (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
drift             slow, unwanted, change in any operating parameter, but usually
                  in frequency
dsb               double sideband
dsp               digital signal processing
dsw               Russian CW abbreviation for "good bye" (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use
                  only)
dual-band         capable of operating on two frequency bands
duplex            receiving and transmitting on two different frequencies
                  simultaneously
dwn               down (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
dx                distance or rare station
DXCC              DX Century Club.  An award which requires proof of contact
                  with one hundred, or more, different DXCC recognised countries
dxpedition        a visit to an unusual location in order to activate a rare
                  callsign prefix
ears              a station's receive capability
earwigging        listening to a QSO without actually joining in
eirp              effective isotropic radiated power
el                element (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
electronic bug    fully automatic electronic morse key
e-mail            electronic mail
eme               earth-moon-earth
end fed wire      a wire antenna, usually tuned against ground, where one end is
                  connected directly to the transmitter/receiver/ATU
end stop          description of a very strong signal (refers to full-scale
                  deflection on the S-meter)
enuf              enough (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
erp               effective radiated power
es                and (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only).  Note that this is actually
                  the old American land-line telegraphy group for the ampersand (&).  
Es                sporadic-e
eu                Europe (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
eve               evening (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ex-government     a term describing equipment originally owned and used by
                  Government organisations, usually the military, but disposed
                  of on the open civilian market when no longer required
extended tropo    VHF propagation mode utilising particular ionisation conditions
                  in the troposphere
eyeball QSO       meeting face to face (in person)
Facebook          one of the largest social networking sites
fb                fine business (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
FEC               Forward Error Correction
feeder            transmission line connecting an antenna to a receiver
                  or transmitter
fer               for (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
final             final transmission (Fone use only)
final final       extra transmission made by a station who has already signed off
                  (Fone use only)
fine business     very good or excellent
finger trouble    errors or problems caused by one's own lack of care or ability
fish-fone         transmissions from vessels such as fishing boats and trawlers
fio               for information only (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
firmware          computer programme stored in solid state memory
fist              a Morse operators style of sending when using a straight key
fist mic          microphone designed to be held in the hand
flaky             unreliable
flame             to send an insulting, rude or controversial message via packet
                  radio or e-mail
flat topping      the condition that exists when an amplifier is overdriven and is
                  unable to amplify signal peaks without distortion
fm                frequency modulation
fone              telephony (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
foxhunt           direction finding contest (usually on VHF)
fq                frequency (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
freq              frequency (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
front end         the input stages of a receiver
fsd               full scale deflection
fsk               frequency shift keying
FSK441            A digital transmission system designed by K1JT, which is used for
                  meteor scatter communication, primarily on 144MHz
FSTV              Fast Scan Television (normal TV transmission format)
ftp               file transfer protocol
full gallon       maximum permitted power
further down
 the log          at a later date (as in "see you further down the log")
fwd               forward (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
fwiw              for what it's worth (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
fyi               for your information (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
G5RV              a type of multiband wire dipole antenna designed by the late
                  Louis Varney, G5RV
ga                good afternoon (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
gateway           a connection between the Internet and a radio station, usually a
                  repeater, which facilitates communication using VOIP or a device
                  to enable one packet station to contact another packet station on
                  a different band, usually VHF to HF
gb                good bye (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
gd                good day (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ge                good evening (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
gear              equipment
gess              guess (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
gg                going (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
gld               glad (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
gm                good morning (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
GMT               Greenwich Mean Time
gn                good night (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
gnd               ground (earth) (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
good buddy        friend (CB jargon, not normally used by Radio Amateurs)
gp                ground plane (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
GPS               Global Positioning System
GRB               Gamma-Ray Burst
greyline          line joining points on the earth's surface where the transition
                  between night and day is occurring
gs                green stamp (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
gud               good (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
gv                give (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
gvg               giving (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
hagd              have a good day (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
hagwe             have a good week end (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
Ham               Amateur Radio Operator (American slang)
hamfest           large organised social gathering of radio amateurs, often with
                  an associated Trade Show and/or flea market 
hand-held         small transceiver intended to be used like a mobile 'phone
                  (colloquially known as a walkie-talkie)
handshaking       the process whereby a digital data link acknowledges receipt or
                  transmission of data
handle            name (American slang)
hard copy         a permanent printed version of electronic data
hard wired        connected by wires rather than computer software
hardware          actual electronic equipment employing physical components
hash              rough noise, usually of man-made origin
HB9CV             a type of VHF beam antenna designed by HB9CV
headset           headphones, often with integral boom microphone
heater            the heating element within a radio valve employing an indirectly
                  heated cathode, as opposed to a directly heated filament
hf                high frequency
hf bands          the 14MHz, 18MHz, 21MHz, 24MHz and 28MHz amateur bands
hh                denotes error in sending preceding word (CW use only.  Sent as a
                  single group, with no space between letters)
hi                high (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) or laughter or used to
                  indicate that something is intended to be funny.  Roughly
                  synonymous with "lol" (laughing out loud) used on the Internet
                  and in e-mails
hollow state      using thermionic active devices, e.g. valves (vacuum tubes)
homebrew          home constructed (as opposed to commercially manufactured)
hooting           instability
hpe               hope (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
hq                headquarters
hr                here or hear or hour (CW or RTTY use only)
hrd               heard (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
hv                have (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
hvg               having (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
hvy               heavy (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
hw                how or how copy (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
IARU              International Amateur Radio Union
idiot box         television set
idiot's lantern   television set
II                short pause (for thought?) (CW use only) RTTY operators usually
                  use letters (or figures) shift, as appropriate
imho              in my humble opinion (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
imiinterrogation or repeat or say again (CW use only.  Sent as a
                  single group, with no space between letters)
in the back of
 the box          a very weak signal (Believed to be a CB expression which should
                  therefore not normally be used by Radio Amateurs)
in the front of
 the box          a very strong signal (Believed to be a CB expression which should
                  therefore not normally be used by Radio Amateurs)
info              information
inner conductor   the centre conductor of a co-axial cable
input frequency   the receive frequency of a repeater, i.e. the frequency that
                  stations use to transmit signals to the repeater
IOTA              Islands On The Air
IP                Internet Protocol or intermodulation products
isb               independent sidebands
ISWL              International Shortwave League
ITA2              International Telegraph Alphabet No.2
ITU               International Telecommunication Union (the Agency of the
                  United Nations responsible for radio spectrum allocation)
jingle-bells      RTTY or similar data transmission signals
JT44              A digital transmission system designed by K1JT, which is used for
                  tropospheric scatter, ionospheric scatter and eme communication
JT6M              A digital transmission system designed by K1JT, which is similar
                  to FSK441 but optimised for meteor scatter use on 50MHz
junior op         operator's son or daughter
junk              redundant but serviceable items
junk box          collection of redundant items accumulated over a period of time,
                  but still serviceable and potentially having a use
junk sale         a sale of equipment, components and associated items, usually
                  conducted as an auction.  The items offered for sale are not
                  necessarily "junk" in the dictionary sense of the word
k                 invitation to transmit (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ka                starting signal (CW use only.  Sent as a single group, with no
                  space between letters)
key               morse key
keyboard mode     an operating mode requiring the use of a keyboard and probably
                  a computer, e.g. packet radio, PSK31, or RTTY
kit               equipment
klix              key clicks (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
kn                invitation for a specific station to transmit (CW, PSK31 and RTTY
                  use only)
ladder feeder     parallel open wire transmission line, so called because the
                  parallel wires and the insulators separating them resemble a
                  ladder
land line         hard wired connection over land such as a telephone line
lash-up           badly constructed item
LED               Light Emitting Diode
leo               low earth orbit
lf                low frequency
lf bands          the 1.8MHz, 3.5MHz, 7MHz and 10MHz amateur bands
lid               poor operator
linear            device capable of amplifying RF signals without distortion (short
                  for "linear amplifier")
listening through this phrase is used on VHF repeaters as an alternative to "CQ"
lnb               low noise block (the down-convertor used with satellite dishes)
lng               long (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
loaded whip       a short, mechanically flexible, vertical antenna using either a
                  coil or a "capacity hat" to resonate it on a lower frequency than
                  its natural resonant frequency
local time        the time in use at a particular location, e.g. British Summer
                  Time, Eastern Standard Time, Central Standard Time, Pacific
                  Standard Time, etc.
locator square    a shortened form of "QTH locator square"
log               a permanent record of station activity
logger            person who maintains the log of a station on behalf of the
                  operator, especially during a contest
lol               Internet abreviation meaning "laughing out loud" which is not
                  normally used in Amateur Radio.  Roughly synonymous with "hi",
                  which is used to indicate laughter or that something is intended
                  to be funny
long path         the longer of the two possible "around-the-world" signal
                  propagation paths
long wire         a wire antenna, usually fed at one end and tuned against ground,
                  where the length is equal to several wavelengths at the frequency
                  being used, but often erroneously used to describe a wire antenna
                  of any random length
LORAN             A radio navigation system (LOng RAnge Navigation).  The current
                  system is LORAN-C which operates at frequencies between 90kHz and
                  110kHz.  The original system was LORAN-A which operated on
                  frequencies within the Amateur 160m Band and caused considerable
                  interference to amateur operations.  Fortunately for amateurs,
                  the use of this system has now been discontinued
lp                long path (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
lsb               lower sideband
lsn               listen (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ltr               later or letter (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
lv                leave (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
lvg               leaving (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
lw                long wire (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
mag-mount         device for mounting an antenna on a ferrous metal surface,
                  adhesion being achieved by magnetic attraction
mag loop          magnetic loop antenna
Maidenhead
 Locator System   the full name of the current QTH locator system, which has been
                  adopted by the IARU.  Now referred to as the "QTH Locator System"
maritime mobile   operation of a station located in or on a vessel in tidal
                  waters.  The suffix "/MM" is appended to the callsign under
                  these conditions
martian Morse     badly sent morse code that is difficult to read
master of
 ceremonies       net controller
mcw               modulated continuous wave
meteor scatter    communication mode relying on reflecting radio signals off the
                  ionised trails caused by meteorites entering the earth's
                  atmosphere
mgr               manager (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
mi                my (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
mic               microphone
mic back to you   verbose phrase sometimes used when returning transmission to
                  another station in a QSO (Not good practise)
microwaves        frequencies above 2GHz
microwave bands   all those amateur bands above and including the 2.3GHz band
mill              typewriter (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
mni               many (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
mobile            operation of a station located in or on a vehicle or vessel in
                  non-tidal waters, or when being carried by the operator e.g.
                  when using hand held equipment.  The suffix "/M" is appended to
                  the callsign under these conditions
mom               moment (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
moonbounce        communication mode relying on reflecting radio signals off the
                  moon
motor boating     very low frequency instability
mouth             a station's transmit capability
mox               manually operated transmit/receive switching
ms                meteor scatter
msg               message (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
muckite           generic term for any non-metallic substance, usually indicating
                  that the exact composition is unknown
mult              multiplier or multiplex (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
multi-band        capable of operating on several bands, e.g. the HF bands, 50MHz
                  and 144MHz
multi-hop         around-the-world propagation of a radio signal by means of
                  several earth-ionosphere-earth reflections
multi-mode        capable of operating on several modes, e.g. CW, SSB and FM
n                 no or negative or incorrect or no more (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use
                  only)
ncs               net control station (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
nd                nothing doing (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
negative          no or not or not received OK
net               a group of stations, usually operating on the same frequency,
                  forming a multi-station QSO, often controlled by one of the
                  participants (the net controller)
net controller    the station overseeing the operation of a net
newby             a new operator (Used more on the Internet than on Amateur Radio)
nicad             a nickel-cadmium battery
nil               nothing or I have nothing for you or not in log (CW, PSK31 and
                  RTTY use only)
nm                no more (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
nimh              nickel metal hydride
node              repeater for digital (packet) modes, where handshaking takes
                  place between each of two connected stations and the intermediate
                  repeater, with no direct handshaking between the two stations or
                  any station on a digital network, whether linked by land-line or
                  linked by radio
NoV               Notice of Variation.  This is a change in the conditions relating
                  to a specific UK Amateur Radio Licence, which is issued under the
                  authority of OFCOM, and enables the holder of the specific
                  licence to carry out specified activities not normally permitted
                  under the terms of a "normal" licence 
novice            the holder of a Novice Class Amateur Radio Licence, which has now
                  been discontinued.  Novice licences have now been replaced by
                  Foundation Class Licences.  Holders of existing Novice Class
                  Licences had their licences upgraded to Intermediate Grade but
                  retained their existing callsigns
nr                near or number (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
nw                now (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ob                old boy (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
oc                old chap (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
OFCOM             Office of Communications.  OFCOM is the independent body that
                  assumed the functions and powers of the RA (Radiocommunications
                  Agency) at the end of December 2003.  The RA was the UK
                  Government Agency responsible for licensing the use of the
                  entire radio spectrum in the UK
off and clear     signifies that a station has completed his/her final over and
                  does not intend to continue with the current contact
ok                correct
om                old man or husband (Intended for CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only but
                  often used on fone)
op                operator (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
opr               operator (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
oranges & lemons  the multiple LEDs (usually red and yellow) used on some modern
                  equipment to indicate signal strength instead of a meter
OSCAR             Orbital Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio
ot                old timer (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
oth               over-the-horizon (See "Woodpeckers" below)
out               closing down (Fone use only)
out of band       description of signals radiated on frequencies outside the
                  permitted frequency bands
out of the box    the practice of purchasing and using commercial equipment with
                  little or no knowledge or appreciation of its technical details
outer conductor   the screen or braid of a co-axial or screened cable
output frequency  the transmit frequency of a repeater, i.e. the frequency that
                  stations use to receive signals from the repeater
over              period of transmission from a station, during a QSO, which will
                  probably consist of several such "overs" or an invitation to
                  transmit (Fone use only)
over and out      closing down but will listen to your final transmission (Fone
                  use only)
ow                old woman (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
pa                power amplifier
packet            burst of digital data. (Also short for "packet radio")
packet cluster    a group of interlinked packet radio stations, usually relaying
                  DX information
packet radio      a digital data transmission system that transmits bursts
                  (i.e. packets) of data.  Acknowledgement of correct receipt is
                  required before transmission of the subsequent packet commences
PACTOR            a packet like mode based on AMTOR
paddle            the operating lever of a bug key
pbl               preamble (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
peak              the highest amplitude attained by a signal
personal          name (CB jargon not normally used by Radio Amateurs)
phasing rig       an SSB transmitter where the SSB signal is generated by the
                  vector addition of phase shifted AF and RF signals, rather than
                  by the use of a balanced modulator and filters
phonetic alphabet a list of words used to confirm individual letters under
                  adverse conditions, the initial letter of the word being the same
                  as the letter being confirmed.  Although there are several
                  phonetic alphabets in use around the world and their use is not
                  forbidden, UK Amateur Radio operators are advised to use the
                  alphabet contained in Appendix S14 of the Radio Regulations and
                  generally known as the "NATO Phonetic Alphabet".  Brian Kelk's
                  Page is an excellent source of further information about phonetic
                  alphabets, including some that are really bizarre.
 
                   Letter     NATO       British WW2   British WW1   International
                          (Recommended) (No longer in common use - Not recommended)
                     A       Alpha         Abel          Ack           Amsterdam
                     B       Bravo         Baker         Beer          Baltimore
                     C       Charlie       Charlie       Charlie       Casablanca
                     D       Delta         Dog           Don           Denmark
                     E       Echo          Easy          Edward        Edison
                     F       Foxtrot       Fox           Freddy        Florida
                     G       Golf          George        George        Gallipoli
                     H       Hotel         How           Harry         Havana
                     I       India         Item          Ink           Italia
                     J       Juliet        Jig           Johnnie       Jerusalem
                     K       Kilo          King          King          Kilogram
                     L       Lima          Love          London        Liverpool
                     M       Mike          Mike          Monkey        Madagascar
                     N       November      Nan           Nuts          New York
                     O       Oscar         Oboe          Orange        Oslo
                     P       Papa          Peter         Pip           Paris
                     Q       Quebec        Queen         Queen         Quebec
                     R       Romeo         Roger         Robert        Roma
                     S       Sierra        Sugar         Sugar         Santiago
                     T       Tango         Tare          Toc           Tripoli
                     U       Uniform       Uncle         Uncle         Uppsala
                     V       Victor        Victor        Vic           Valencia
                     W       Whiskey       William       William       Washington
                     X       X-ray         X-ray         X-ray         Xanthippe
                     Y       Yankee        Yoke          Yorker        Yokohama
                     Z       Zulu          Zebra         Zebra         Zurich

                   pile-up           large number of stations calling on one frequency
ping              very short portion of a transmission received via reflection
                  from meteor trails, auroras or during a sporadic-e opening
                  or an automatic hand-shaking signal sent during digital data
                  transmission to prevent time-out
pink noise        wideband noise with almost constant amplitude but some small
                  peaks or spikes
pink ticket       A notice, issued by the licencing authority, informing a licence
                  holder of an infringement of the regulations.  So called because
                  of the colour of the paper on which such warnings were printed
pip-tone          short duration audible tone, transmitted just before a station
                  changes from transmit to receive, normally only used under
                  difficult VHF conditions when using SSB
pirate            unlicenced operator
pkg               packing or package (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
PL259             the Amphenol catalogue number of a type of co-axial plug in the
                  "UHF" generic series.  Often erroneously used to indicate the
                  generic series itself
plumber's delight antenna constructed entirely from metal tubing and requiring no
                  insulators
plumbing          the mechanical arrangements used in UHF and microwave equipment,
                  such as resonant cavities and Lecher lines 
pmr               private mobile radio (as used by (say) a taxi firm)
poll              the action of one digital node (station) "asking" another for
                  information, such as confirmation of receipt of data packet
port              the input or output connection to a piece of equipment, usually
                  a computer or other digital device or a microwave component
portable          operation of a station at a fixed location that is not the
                  registered address stated on the licence.  The suffix "/P" may be
                  appended to the callsign under these conditions
pounding brass    sending Morse code
pov               point of view (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
preamp            pre-amplifier
prefix            the part of a callsign that denotes the country of origin. Select
                  the comprehensive list of Amateur Radio Prefixes for details.
pse               please (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
psk               phase shift keying
PSK31             a digital data transmission mode used by radio amateurs
pt                point (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ptt               press to talk
pull the big
 switch           close down the station and switch off the equipment
pwr               power (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
px                prefix or press (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
Q-fiver           device intended to improve the readability of received signals
                  that is usually an "add on" unit to an existing receiver.
                  Historically, a Q-fiver was an ex-american military "Command
                  Receiver", capable of being tuned to the (then) ubiquitous IF of
                  465kHz but having much better selectivity than the main receiver.
qra               address, often expressed as a locator code (See Q-Code list for
                  full meaning)
qra locator       an obsolete system for indicating a station's geographical
                  location by a five-character code that recurs at several
                  positions on the earth's surface, e.g. ZK08F
qrg               frequency (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qrk               readability or price/cost (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qrl               busy (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qrm               interference (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qrn               atmospheric noise/static (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qro               high power (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qrp               low power (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qrq               send faster (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qrs               send slower (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qrss              send extremely slowly, e.g. at a speed of one word per minute,
                  or less.  (Specialised mode used on VLF bands). (No official
                  Q-Code meaning)
qrt               stop sending or close down station (See Q-Code list for full
                  meaning)
qru               nothing further to say (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qrv               ready or operational (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qrx               wait (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qrz               who is calling me (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qsa               signal strength (See Q-Code list for full meaning)               
qsb               fading (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qsk               break-in (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qsl               all received OK (See Q-Code list for full meaning) also used as
                  a short form of "qsl card"
qsll              I will send a QSL card when I receive one from you (No official
                  Q-Code meaning)
qsl bureau        organisation that allows stations to send QSL cards in bulk
                  which are then distributed to the individual recipients
qsl card          confirmation of a contact, usually in post-card format
qsl manager       person who deals with the sending and receiving of QSL cards on
                  behalf of a station
qso               contact (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qsp               relay a message or the relayed message itself (See Q-Code list
                  for full meaning)
qst               officially unassigned Q-Code, but adopted by the American Radio
                  Relay League to mean "CQ ARRL members".   Also the title of the
                  ARRL's official journal.
qsx               indicates that a station is listening for replies on a
                  frequency that is different from his transmitting frequency,
                  e.g. "qsx up 5" means listening 5kHz above transmitting
                  frequency (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qsy               change frequency (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qth               location (See Q-Code list for full meaning)
qth locator       the current IARU system for indicating a station's geographical
                  location by a six-character code that is unique to one small
                  area of the earth's surface, e.g. IO90TW.  This six-character
                  code defines an area 0.5 minutes of longitude wide by 2.5
                  minutes of latitude high.  Select "Locator and Zone Maps" for
                  further information.
qth locator
  square          the area defined by the first four characters of a QTH locator
                  code, e.g. IO90, which is an area of the Earth's surface 2
                  degrees of longitude wide by 1 degree of latitude high.  There
                  are 32,400 such squares and each has a unique reference within
                  the range AA00 to RR99.  Note that these "squares" are actually
                  trapezia (but virtually rectangular), which are further divided
                  into 576 sub-squares, each 0.5 minutes of longitude wide by 2.5
                  minutes of latitude high.  These sub-squares are defined by the
                  last two characters of a QTH locator code, which are within the
                  range AA to XX, e.g. TW.  Select "Locator and Zone Maps" for
                  further information.
qthr              name and address correct in the UK Call Book (No official Q-Code
                  meaning)
quad              an antenna with a rectangular format, usually consisting
                  of wire elements mounted on spreaders
"quert"           phonetic pronunciation of "qrt", as in "going quert", which
                  means "closing down"
quietening        an indication of the strength of a received FM signal by
                  estimating the degree of receiver noise reduction
r                 all received OK or the decimal point (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
RA                Radiocommunications Agency.  This was the UK Government Agency
                  responsible for licensing the use of the entire radio spectrum in
                  the UK.  The powers and functions of the RA were transferred to
                  OFCOM (The Office of Communications) at the end of December 2003.
radials           wires or rods located at the base of a vertical antenna,
                  connected to form an "artificial earth" against which the antenna
                  may be tuned
rag-chew          long contact during which many subjects are discussed, often of a
                  general, non-amateur radio, nature
RAIBC             Radio Amateur Invalid and Blind Club
rain static       pulsating noise caused by statically charged rain falling on the
                  antenna
rally             short for "mobile rally".  These used to be informal gatherings
                  of mobile radio operators held to promote discussion about
                  equipment, operating practices and operational safety, but which
                  have now become large well organised Trade Shows and "radio
                  boot-sales"
rc                ragchew (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
rcd               received (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
rcvr              receiver (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
RDFT              Redundant Digital File Transfer.  This is a protocol for the
                  transmission of any digital file via an analogue radio link, but
                  the main Amateur Radio application is in "digital SSTV".
re                concerning or regarding (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
read              the act of hearing and understanding another station
read the mail     obtain information by listening to a station's QSOs prior to
                  actually making contact with the station
readout           the device that displays visual data, other than pictures, on a
                  piece of equipment
ref               reference or refer to (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
report            message indicating the subjective readability, signal strength
                  and tone quality of a received signal (tone quality on CW only).
                  Amateur Radio signal reports are given as a two or three figure
                  group, using the following criteria:-

                                       r  (Readability)
                    1  Unreadable
                    2  Barely readible, with only occasional words distinguishable
                    3  Readable with considerable difficulty
                    4  Readable with practically no difficulty
                    5  Perfectly readable

                                       s  (Signal strength)
                    1  Faint signals, barely perceptible
                    2  Very weak signals
                    3  Weak signals
                    4  Fair signals
                    5  Fairly good signals
                    6  Good signals
                    7  Moderately strong signals
                    8  Strong signals
                    9  Extremely strong signals

                                       t  (Tone quality) (CW use only)
                    1  Extremely rough, hissing note
                    2  Very rough ac note with no trace of musicality
                    3  Rough, low pitched ac note, but slightly musical
                    4  Rather rough ac note, but moderately musical
                    5  Fairly musical note, but with some modulation
                    6  Musical note, but with a trace of modulation
                    7  Nearly pure tone with trace of ripple modulation
                    8  Near perfect tone with slight trace of modulation
                    9  Perfect tone with no trace of ripple or modulation

                  If a CW signal appears to be crystal controlled, the letter "x"
                  may be appended to the rst report.  If there is chirp on the
                  signal, the letter "c" should be appended and if there are key-
                  clicks, the letter "k" should be appended.
                  Although not used by Amateur Radio operators, except on the 
                  experimental 60m (5MHz) band, broadcast signal reception is
                  normally reported, by SWLs, using the SINPO system.
repeater          a device which receives signals on one frequency and retransmits
                  the modulation content on another frequency within the same band
rf                radio frequency
rfi               radio frequency interference
ribbon feeder     flat parallel twin transmission line
rice-box          equipment manufactured in the Far East, usually Japan
rig               transmitter/receiver or Remote Imaging Group
roger             all received OK
roller coaster    variable inductor using a rotatable coil with a tapping point
                  formed by a small fixed roller running on the turns of the coil
rotator           device for rotating a directional antenna
rpt               repeat or report (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
rough noise       wideband noise with non-constant amplitude including many peaks
                  and spikes
RSGB              Radio Society of Great Britain
rst               letter group immediately preceding the signal report (CW, PSK31
                  and RTTY use only)
RTTY              radio teletype
rubber duck       a small, flexible, antenna used on hand-held equipment
rubber crystal    a quartz crystal incorporated into a circuit that allows its
                  operating frequency to be varied
running a list    the practise of compiling a list of calling stations prior to
                  working them individually.  Often used by DX stations when
                  dealing with a pile-up
rx                receive or receiver (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
S-meter           device incorporated into a receiver that indicates signal
                  strength
sa                say (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
sae               self addressed envelope
SAREX             Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment
sase              stamped, self addressed envelope (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
say again         repeat
scope             oscilloscope
sdr               software defined radio
serial number     number appended to a contest report that indicates the number of
                  contacts achieved since the start of the contest.  Serial numbers
                  normally start at 001 and increment by one for each new station
                  worked
sez               says (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
sgd               signed (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
shack             room containing the amateur radio station
shared band       a frequency band in which more than one user service has
                  operating rights
sheepskin         operating proficiency certificate (e.g. DXCC)
shift             frequency change used in fsk or the separation between a
                  repeater's input and output channels
short path        the shorter of the two possible "around-the-world" signal
                  propagation paths
shud              should (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
SID               Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance
side swiper       a Morse key in which the operating lever moves from side to side
side tone         a signal injected into the station receiver during transmission,
                  such that the transmitted signal may be monitored
sig               signal or signature (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
sig gen           signal generator
silent key        a deceased Radio Amateur
simplex           receiving and transmitting sequentially on the same frequency
SINAD             acronym for "signal plus noise and distortion".  A sensitivity
                  measurement normally associated with FM receivers
SINPO             the system of reporting signals from broadcast and other stations
                  where an accurate and repeatable subjective assessment of
                  reception conditions is required.  The SINPO code is defined in
                  CCIR Recommendation 251, but the "RST equivalents" are not part
                  of that recommendation, being specific to the "5MHz Experiment".
                  Although the normal Amateur Radio convention of reporting only
                  readability and signal strength is sometimes considered to be
                  inadequate, the SINPO code is not normally used by Radio Amateurs.
                  Its use was, however, obligatory for those stations participating
                  in the "5MHz Experiment", which began in August 2002, during which
                  propagation studies were carried out in conjunction with other UK
                  amateur, military and military cadet stations.  UK Amateur Radio
                  operators who had been granted the necessary NoV, were permitted
                  to operate on seven spot frequencies in the 5MHz band during this
                  experiment.  New regulations came into force on 01.01.13 giving
                  access to additional frequencies and removing the requirement to
                  use the SINPO reporting system during "normal" QSOs.  The RST
                  values normally used by Radio Amateurs are shown in brackets below
                  and are the recommended equivalents to be used when determining
                  SINPO reports of signals on the 5MHz Band.

                                       S - Signal strength (QSA)
                    1  Barely audible      (S2 or below)
                    2  Poor                (S3 or S4)
                    3  Fair                (S5 or S6)
                    4  Good                (S7 or S8)
                    5  Excellent           (S9 or above)

                                       I - Interference from other signals (QRM)
                    1  Extreme             (S9 or above)
                    2  Severe              (S7 or S8)
                    3  Moderate            (S5 or S6)
                    4  Slight              (S3 or S4)
                    5  Nil                 (S2 or below)

                                       N - Noise, static etc (QRN)
                    1  Extreme             (S9 or above)
                    2  Severe              (S7 or S8)
                    3  Moderate            (S5 or S6)
                    4  Slight              (S3 or S4)
                    5  Nil                 (S2 or below)

                                     * P - Propagation effects (QSB and multipath)
                    1  Extreme             (QSB > 6 S-points or extremely Auroral)
                    2  Severe              (QSB of 6 S-points or strong multipath)
                    3  Moderate            (QSB of 4 S-points or medium multipath)
                    4  Slight              (QSB of 2 S-points or slight multipath)
                    5  Nil                 (No QSB or multipath)

                                       O - Overall rating (QRK)
                    1  Barely audible      (Extremely difficult to read)
                    2  Poor                (Poor readability, quality unassessable)
                    3  Fair                (Fairly good readability and quality)
                    4  Good                (Good readability and quality)
                    5  Excellent           (Excellent readability and quality)

                  *  Note that when assessing the "Propagation" parameter, the most
                  predominant effect from fading (QSB) and Doppler/multipath (phase
                  distortion or auroral effects) is used to determine the "P" value.
SITOR             acronym for "simplex teletype over radio"
sk                end of work (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only.  Sent as a single group,
                  with no space between letters) or silent key (CW, PSK31 and RTTY
                  use only)
sked              schedule
sky-hook          the means whereby an antenna is held aloft
slow-scan         slow scan television
smps              switch mode power supply
sn                soon (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
snale-mail        the normal postal system as opposed to e-mail
SO239             the Amphenol catalogue number of a type of co-axial socket in the
                  "UHF" generic series.  Often erroneously used to indicate the
                  generic series itself
software          the code that constitutes a computer programme
solid state       using non-thermionic active devices, e.g. transistors
SOTA              Summits On The Air
sp                short path (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
sparkle           a subjective description of modulation that is not "woolly"
speaker           shortened form of "loud speaker"
speech clipper    a rudimentary form of speech processor which limits the peak
                  amplitude of the speech waveform to a particular level
speech compressor alternative name for a speech processor
speech mangler    alternative name for a speech processor (facetious)
speech processor  device for increasing the "talk-power" of a transmission by
                  compressing the dynamic range of the modulating audio
spike             short duration, high amplitude signal super-imposed upon another
                  signal
spitch            high pitched transient interference from an adjacent signal
splatter          interference from the sidebands of an adjacent signal
split frequency   receiving and transmitting sequentially on different frequencies
spot              a message on a DX cluster indicating the presence and frequency
                  of a particular station
sporadic-e        the propagation mode occasionally occurring on the VHF and higher
                  HF bands when a particular type of ionisation is present in the
                  E-layer of the ionosphere
spread            the total bandwidth occupied by a signal
sprog             very young operator or child
sproggy           spurious emission from a transmitter
spur              spurious internally generated signal in a receiver or from a
                  transmitter
square            short for "QTH locator square" in context of "squares worked",
                  "square chasing" etc
square eyes       a malady caused by watching too much television!
squeaky           a person, causing deliberate interference using a disguised voice
squelch           a system whereby receiver and atmospheric noise is suppressed
                  in the absence of a received signal
sri               sorry (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ss                sweepstakes (In America, CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ssb               single sideband
sstv              slow scan television
stateside         The United States of America
static crashes    the background noise caused by atmospheric electrical discharges
static mobile     unofficial designation indicating that the station is permanently
                  installed in a vehicle that is currently parked.  Note that the
                  correct designation is "mobile" or "/M", regardless of whether
                  the vehicle is parked or moving.
station manager   wife (facetious)
station master    net controller
stn               station (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
straight key      manually operated morse key
sub-audible tones the very low frequency CTCSS audio tones that some repeaters use
                  instead of, or in addition to, the 1750Hz tone-burst, to initiate
                  access.  See "CTCSS" above for a list of the currently used tones
suffix            the part of a callsign directly following the prefix
sum               some (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
surplus           term used to describe equipment no longer required by the
                  original owner and disposed of on the open market
svc               service or prefix to service message (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
"swer"            phonetic pronunciation of the abbreviation "swr"
"swer-bridge"     phonetic pronunciation of "swr bridge"
swr               standing wave ratio
swr bridge        a device for measuring the standing wave ratio existing on a
                  transmission line
swl               short wave listener
tail ending       the practice of calling a station immediately following the end
                  of a transmission from the station that is currently being
                  worked, without waiting for the first station to sign off (poor
                  operating practice)
talk-in           operation intended to provided assistance to mobile stations
                  requiring directions to a rally or similar event
talk up           attempt to increase the signal strength of an SSB transmission,
                  the modulation level of an AM transmission, or the deviation
                  level of an FM transmission, by speaking loudly
talk power        the perceived ability of a transmitter to produce readable 
                  signals based on modulation criteria rather than signal strength
TCP/IP            Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
temp              temporary or temperature (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ten-four          message understood (CB jargon, believed to derive from American
                  Police radio procedures, not normally used by Radio Amateurs)
test              contest (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only) or test transmission
tfc               traffic (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
thin audio        audio lacking base and upper treble frequencies
this end          here or is (verbose CB jargon, not recommended for amateur use)
this side         here or is (verbose CB jargon, not recommended for amateur use)
this way          here or is (verbose CB jargon, not recommended for amateur use)
three legged
   fuse           a transistor
tia               thanks in advance (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ticket            Amateur Radio Licence
time-out          automatic cessation of communications, after a pre-determined
                  period, caused by inactivity
tits up           broken or not working correctly (not recommended for amateur use)
tks               thanks (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
tmw               tomorrow (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
tnc               terminal node controller (used for decoding packet radio signals)
tnx               thanks (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
tone-burst        the 1750Hz tone used to open a repeater link
top band          the 1.8MHz amateur band
tr                transmit (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
t/r               transmit/receive (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
transceiver       combined transmitter and receiver
transponder       a device which receives signals on one frequency band and
                  retransmits them on another frequency band
trbl              treble or trouble (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
trf               tuned radio frequency
trix              tricks (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
trx               transceiver (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
tt                that (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
tts               that is (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
tu                thank you (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
tube              radio valve (abbreviation of the American term "vacuum tube")
tune-up           adjust equipment, usually a transmitter
tune for maximum
 smoke            adjust a transmitter to generate its maximum power output
turns on the coil age (e.g. 60 years old = 60 turns on the coil)
tweet             a message sent or received via Twitter
twisted pair      telephone line
Twitter           one of the largest social networking sites
tvi               television interference
tx                transmit or transmitter (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
txt               text (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
u                 you (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
ufb               ultra fine business (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
uhf               ultra high frequency
uhf bands         the 432MHz and 1296MHz amateur bands.  Also the American 902MHz
                  amateur band
unlis             unlicensed (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
up-link           the transmitted signal to a satelite
ur                your or you are (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
url               Universal Resource Locator
urs               yours (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
usb               upper sideband or universal serial bus
UTC               Co-ordinated Universal Time.  For all practical purposes, this
                  is the same as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
v                 volts
valve             thermionic device referred to in America as a "vacuum tube"
vertical          vertically polarised antenna
ve                understood (CW use only.  Sent as a single group, with no space
                  between letters. RTTY operators normally use "R")
vert              vertical (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
vfb               very fine business (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
vfo               variable frequency oscillator
vhf               very high frequency
vhf bands         the 50MHz, 70MHz and 144MHz amateur bands.  Also the American
                  220MHz amateur band
virus             malicious software secretly installed on a computer
vlf               very low frequency
vlf bands         the 73kHz and 136kHz amateur bands
VoIP              Voice over Internet Protocol
vox               voice operated transmit/receive switching
vsb               vestigial sideband
vswr              voltage standing wave ratio 
vy                very (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
w                 watts
wa                word after (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
WAB               Worked All Britain
WACRAL            World Association of Christian Radio Amateurs and Listeners
walkie-talkie     colloquial slang for a hand-held transceiver, other than
                  a mobile 'phone
wat               what (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
watsa             what say (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
WAMRAC            World Association of Methodist Radio Amateurs and Clubs (now
                  renamed WACRAL)
WARC              World Administrative Radio Conference (organised by the ITU)
WARC Bands        the 10MHz, 18MHz and 24MHz bands.  These are the latest bands
                  to be released to the Amateur Radio Service by decisions taken
                  at a World Administrative Radio Conference
wb                word before (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
wet string        description of an antenna, usually indicating poor performance
                  (as in "the antenna is a piece of wet string")
wd                word (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
wds               words (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
whip antenna      a short, vertical, antenna, usually mechanically flexible
whiskeys          watts (CB jargon not normally used on Amateur Radio)
white noise       constant amplitude wideband noise, such as residual circuit
                  noise in a receiver with no incoming signals
white-stick op    blind operator
wid               with (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
wireless          old name for radio, but now "re-discovered" to indicate the
                  interconnection of any electronic devices without a direct,
                  hard-wired connection
wkd               worked (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
wkg               working (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
wl                will or well (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
woodpeckers       HF over-the-horizon military radar systems using wideband pulse
                  modulation which cause considerable interference across the HF
                  spectrum
woolly            a subjective description of muffled or indistinct modulation
work              be in contact with
working
 conditions       equipment details
wpm               words per minute (When estimating Morse speeds, the word "PARIS"
                  is regarded as the standard length word)
WRC               World Radiocommunications Conference (organised by the ITU)
wrd               word (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
wrk               work (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
WSJT              Weak Signal Communication by K1JT.  This is a computer programme
                  written by K1JT, which decodes FSK441, JT44 and JT6M signals and
                  generates appropriate replies.   These types of transmissions
                  are used for meteor scatter, tropospheric scatter, ionospheric
                  scatter and eme communication, on the VHF and UHF bands
wud               would (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
wug or wugite     generic term for any non-metallic substance, usually indicating
                  that the exact composition is unknown
wx                weather (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
xcvr              transceiver (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
xmas              Christmas (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
xmtr              transmitter (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
xtal              quartz crystal (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
xyf               ex-wife (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
xyl               wife
x squared yl      ex-wife (ex-xyl)
yagi              a multi-element directional antenna
yf                wife (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
yl                young lady or girl friend
yr                year (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
z                 zulu time (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
zepp              an end fed wire antenna, using a ladder feeder with only one
                  side of the feeder connected to the antenna. (Zepp is short for
                  Zeppelin, the aircraft which first used this type of antenna)
zilch             nothing or zero
zones             geographical areas, surrounded by arbitrary boundaries, and
                  assigned numbers by the ITU and CQ Magazine.  Unfortunately the
                  two zoning systems are not mutually compatible and neither is
                  compatible with the QTH Locator System.  For example, the
                  British Isles are in ITU Zone 27, CQ Zone 14 and QTH Locator
                  fields IN, IO, IP and JO.  Select "Locator and Zone Maps" for
                  further information.  
zulu time         Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
5RV               short for "G5RV", which is a type of multiband wire dipole
                  antenna designed by the late Louis Varney, G5RV
30                I have nothing more to send (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
33                fondest regards (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
55                best success (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
73                best wishes (Intended for CW use but often used on fone)
88                love and kisses (Intended for CW use but often used on fone)
99  *             good health (See note below)
100 *             God bless (See note below)
141 *             God be with you until we meet again (See note below)
161 (73+88)       best regards to you and your YL/XYL (CW, PSK31 and RTTY use only)
501 *             a combination of 73+88+99+100+141 (See note below)

Note *            These codes have been originated by WACRAL for use in contacts
                  between its members.  These codes should NEVER be used in normal
                  Amateur Radio activities, and preferably should never be used at
                  all, as Amateur Radio is not an appropriate place for religion
                  and was never intended as a medium to promote religious beliefs
                  or propaganda.

Like most specialized hobbies or activities, Amateur Radio has its own jargon, which is often meaningless to everybody else.  The more common abbreviations and expressions used in Amateur Radio contacts are defined below.

It is interesting to note that many of the abbreviations intended for use in Morse code messages are now being used in e-mails and mobile ‘phone text messages, although it is doubtful whether the users of these methods of communication realise this historical significance.

Note that the following list is by no means exhaustive and only defines the meanings applicable to Amateur Radio usage.  References to licensing matters relate to the United Kingdom and are not necessarily true for other countries.

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